5. (4 pts) The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an enveloped (+) senseretrovirus, some strains of which have become resistant to certain antivirals. A. How do mutations arise and lead to antiviral resistance? B. Doctors are now advised to treat HIV patients with multiple antiviral drugs incombination (simultaneously) to improve the long-term effectiveness of the drugs. Explain the logic behind this policy. [Based on a student-written question] 6. (3 pts) Ismael discovered a new bacterial species in an underground cave. To learnmore about its metabolism and structures, he constructed a phylogenetic tree usingthe sequences of the DNA polymerase gene dnaQ from the new bacterium and fromcharacterized bacterial species in diverse taxonomic groups. How can Ismael use this data to learn about the biology of the organism? [Basedon a student-written question]
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